- location of the farm,
- buildings and microclimatic conditions,
- technology and staff hygiene,
- black and white system security,
- use of quarantine,
- control of farm visits,
- control of the presence of unwanted animals,
- control of the vaccination and treatment programme,
- disposal of fallen stock,
- surveillance in animal marketing.
The implementation of bio-security tasks is always individual to the animal farms concerned, which take into account not only the animal species and housing system, but also a number of conditions, including external ones, e.g. proximity to other farms or location in the field. Also important are the regulations in force for the implementation of bio-security in connection with the control of infectious diseases (e.g. ASF – pigs, avian influenza – poultry).
The aim of bio-security is to prevent disease on the farm by eliminating or reducing as much as possible potential sources of disease and reducing the pathways through which it is spread (Table 1). Pathogens can enter the farm from outside, so the location of the farm is very important. They can also travel within the farm, in which case sick or diseased animals are a source of viruses, bacteria in the air of the buildings. Sick animals (whether breeding or free-living) excrete large quantities of bacteria or viruses with their faeces, secretions and exhaled air, so bio-security measures are extremely important to prevent the spread of micro-organisms.
Table 1. Vectors of disease spread
|Buildings and their equipment, feeding and daily operations equipment, faeces..
|Animals entering the farm, pets, people, rodents, insects, equipment, means of transport, air, etc.
|Contaminated feed and water.