Location is one of the most important factors in the biosafety of a farm. However, this requirement is also crucial when selecting a location for a new farm.
In general, the farm should be located on a slight hill, taking into account the presence of other farms of this animal species or others in the vicinity. A flat site without trees or other protection presents a higher risk compared to a hilly site. For example, a lower density of pigs per square km represents a lower risk than a high density. For comparison, the average pig density in Poland is about 76 pigs/km2 and in the Netherlands 250 pigs/km2. A large farm should have a so-called protection zone in the form of natural or artificial tree cover (protection from wind-borne pathogens). The more isolated the farm, the lower the risk of diseases entering the herd. An important factor influencing the health risk is the distance of the farm from traffic routes and the type of adjacent roads (local roads, transit roads). Having a local access road frequented only by workers and delivery trucks is ideal. Farms should not be located in the vicinity of slaughterhouses, industrial plants, rendering facilities for dead animals and other biological material, landfill sites, etc.
Table 1. Recommended minimum distances
|Minimum distance from:||Pig farms||Poultry farms|
|Other pig farms||5 km||100 m|
|Other poultry farms||100 m||1.5-3 km|
|Cattle and other animal species farms||100 m||100 m|
|Slaughterhouses and meat industry plants||5 km||3 km|
|Other animal raw material processing plants||3 km||3 km|
|Disposal facilities for fallen stock||2 km||1.5 km|
|Landfill sites||1 km||1.5 km|
|Public roads and railways||400-800 m||400-800 m|
The design of the building and cages should take into account the welfare of the animals and the ergonomics of the operators. At the same time, housing conditions have a major impact on the productivity of the animals and their state of resistance. Creating optimal microclimatic conditions in the enclosure not only contributes to proper growth and reproduction, but also has a clear impact on their state of health