The rule is to employ adults, i.e. people who have reached the age of 18. Under certain conditions, a person under this age may also be an employee. A juvenile within the meaning of the Code is a person who has reached the age of 15 and is under the age of 18.
The performance of work or other gainful activity by a child under the age of 15 shall only be permitted for an entity engaged in cultural, artistic, sporting or advertising activities and shall require the prior consent of the legal representative or guardian of that child, as well as the authorisation of the competent labour inspector.
Only those juveniles may be employed who:
- have completed at least eight years of primary school,
- present a medical certificate stating that the work of the type in question does not endanger their health.
A person who has not completed eight years of primary school and who is not 15 years of age may be employed under the rules laid down for juveniles for the purpose of vocational preparation in the form of an apprenticeship to perform a specific job. The employer is obliged to provide young workers with the care and assistance necessary for their adaptation to the proper performance of work.
The employer is obliged to release the juvenile from work for the time needed to take part in training activities in connection with further training.
A juvenile may be employed under a contract of employment to perform light work. The light work shall not cause danger to the life, health and psycho-physical development of the young person and shall not hinder the young person from fulfilling his/her compulsory schooling. The list of light work shall be determined by the employer after obtaining the approval of the occupational physician. The list shall be subject to the approval of the competent labour inspector. The list of light work may not include work prohibited to young people and the employer shall determine it in the work regulations. An employer who is not obliged to issue regulations shall establish the list of light work in a separate act. The employer is obliged to acquaint the young worker with the list of light work before allowing him/her to work. It is important to note that, for example, a young worker may not work with chemicals classified as hazardous. On farms, these could be plant protection products, cleaning agents and disinfectants used to clean equipment and buildings.
Juvenile working hours:
- under 16 years of age may not exceed 6 hours per day,
- over 16 years of age must not exceed 8 hours per day.
A juvenile may not be employed during overtime or night time. The weekly working hours of a juvenile during the period of school attendance shall not exceed 12 hours. On the day of school attendance, a juvenile’s working hours may not exceed 2 hours. The working hours of a juvenile during school holidays may not exceed 7 hours per day and 35 hours per week.